Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Policies for prevention of infection to or / and from Health works

1) Tuberculosis : -

- Staff are Mantoux tested and have chest X ray at start of hospital employment .

- Mantoux negative BCG immunization and be sure to convert mantoux negative to positive .

- Mantoux positive Deals with patients with open T.B or samples known to have T.B. bacilli .

- Isolate patient with open T.B in single room until 2-3 weeks after antituberculous therapy .

- Each sputum sample should be handled as if it had T.B and never be opened in the ward .

- In the lab See precautions of handling sputum samples .

2) Viral Hepatitis : -

- Exclude staff with HBsAg positive from renal dialysis units or from carrying exposure – prone procedures

- Precautions should be taken in the lab. To prevent infections to workers .

- All staff with regular contact with blood should have anti HBS with titre > (10 lu/L)

Precautions to prevent viral hepatitis : -

- Isolate the patients (stool / urine / needle isolation)

- Take blood samples with gloves

- Transport to the lab in sealed plastic bags.

- Samples are put in upright position in non leaking screw caps containers

- Samples and requests should be labeled ashepatitis risk .

- Take care of samples from suspected patients .

- Accidental prick to staff should be reported to senior staff , take hyper immune globulin with 24-48 hours and vaccinate if HBS antibodies is negative .

- Wearing of two gloves , waterproof apron and goggles together with many other precautions are necessary when surgery is carried out on patients with hepatitis B. (universal precautions) .

- Staff members positive for HBsAg or e antigen should not work in dialysis unit , oncology , surgery or transplant unit .

3)AIDS :-

- Blood and blood products should be screened for HIV 1/2.

- Universal precautions against blood – borne viruses should be taken when blood or blood staining splashing are anticipated as risk .

- Post exposure drug prophylaxis is recommended for staff sustaining a sharp injury from a patient or HIV .

Policies for Control of Hospital –acquired Infections

Each hospital has many procedures and policies which attempt to reduce the chances of hospital infection occurring , but the extent to which these policies are effectively carried out on a day to a day basis varies greatly between different hospitals or different areas in the hospital .

Procedures for control Include : -

- Sterilization and disinfection of contaminated items .

- Disposal of infected rubbish or linen .

- Aseptic techniques in the operating theatre

- Procedures carried in wards such as changing of wound dressings , urinary catheterization and setting up of an intravenousdrip .

- Protective isolation of infected patients or protective isolation of highly susceptible patients .

- Use of antibiotics therapy according to a greed policy .

- Education of hospital staff in hospital hygiene .

- Good staff health facilities .

- Adequate use of the clinical microbiology for the precise bacteriological diagnosis .

- Control infection committee which helps to design hospital policies and discusses any difficulties encountered during the implementation of these policies .
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